pandas bootcamp

Pandas Cheatsheet

Pandas is a great tool for analyzing, manipulating, and visualizing data. It is built on top of Python.

You can also watch my Youtube series on 5 Days of Pandas.

Importing Data

pd.read_csv(filename) | From a CSV file
pd.read_table(filename) | From a delimited text file (like TSV)
pd.read_excel(filename) | From an Excel file
pd.read_json(json_string) | Read from a JSON formatted string, URL or file.
pd.read_html(url) | Parses an html URL, string or file and extracts tables to a list of dataframes pd.DataFrame(dict) | From a dict, keys for columns names, values for data as lists
pd.read_clipboard() | Takes the contents of your clipboard and passes it to read_table()

Exporting Data

df.to_csv(filename) | Write to a CSV file
df.to_excel(filename) | Write to an Excel file
df.to_json(filename) | Write to a file in JSON format

Viewing/Inspecting Data

df.head(n) | First n rows of the DataFrame
df.tail(n) | Last n rows of the DataFrame
df.shape | Number of rows and columns | Index, Datatype and Memory information
df.describe() | Summary statistics for numerical columns
s.value_counts(dropna=False) | View unique values and counts
df.apply(pd.Series.value_counts) | Unique values and counts for all columns


df[col] | Returns column with label col as Series
df[[col1, col2]] | Returns columns as a new DataFrame
df.iloc[0] | Selection by position
df.loc['index_one'] | Selection by index
df.loc[1000:1005, 'Salary'] | selecting salaries from certain indices
df.iloc[0] | First row
df.iloc[0,0] | First element of first column[3, 'Salary'] | select a value at Row 3 column salary

Data Cleaning

df.columns = ['a','b','c'] | Rename columns
df.isnull() | Checks for null Values, Returns Boolean Arrray
df.isnull.sum() | retrurns the number of null values
df[df['Salary'].isna()]| returns the rows containing null
df.notnull() | Opposite of pd.isnull()
df.dropna() | Drop all rows that contain null values
df.dropna(axis=1) | Drop all columns that contain null values
df.dropna(axis=1,thresh=n) | Drop all rows have have less than n non null values
df.fillna(x) | Replace all null values with x
s.fillna(s.mean()) | Replace all null values with the mean
s.astype(float) | Convert the datatype of the series to float
s.replace(1,'one') | Replace all values equal to 1 with ‘one’
s.replace([1,3],['one','three']) | Replace all 1 with ‘one’ and 3 with ‘three’
df.rename(columns=lambda x: x + 1) | Mass renaming of columns
df.rename(columns={'old_name': 'new_ name'}) | Selective renaming
df.set_index('column_one') | Change the index
df.rename(index=lambda x: x + 1) | Mass renaming of index

Filter, Sort, and Groupby

df[df[col] > 0.5] | Rows where the column col is greater than 0.5
df[(df[col] > 0.5) & (df[col] < 0.7)] | Rows where 0.7 > col > 0.5
df.sort_values(col1) | Sort values by col1 in ascending order
df.sort_values(col2,ascending=False) | Sort values by col2 in descending order
df.sort_values([col1,col2],ascending=[True,False]) | Sort values by col1 in ascending order then col2 in descending order
df.groupby(col) | Returns a groupby object for values from one column
df.groupby([col1,col2]) | Returns groupby object for values from multiple columns
df.groupby(col1)[col2] | Returns the mean of the values in col2, grouped by the values in col1 (mean can be replaced with almost any function from the statistics module)
df.pivot_table(index=col1,values=[col2,col3],aggfunc=mean) | Create a pivot table that groups by col1 and calculates the mean of col2 and col3
df.groupby(col1).agg(np.mean) | Find the average across all columns for every unique col1 group
df.apply(np.mean) | Apply the function np.mean() across each column
nf.apply(np.max,axis=1) | Apply the function np.max() across each row


df1.append(df2) | Add the rows in df1 to the end of df2 (columns should be identical)
pd.concat([df1, df2],axis=1) | Add the columns in df1 to the end of df2 (rows should be identical)
df1.join(df2,on=col1,how='inner') | SQL-style join the columns in df1 with the columns on df2 where the rows for col have identical values. 'how' can be one of 'left''right''outer''inner'


df.describe() | Summary statistics for numerical columns
df.mean() | Returns the mean of all columns
df.corr() | Returns the correlation between columns in a DataFrame
df.count() | Returns the number of non-null values in each DataFrame column
df.max() | Returns the highest value in each column
df.min() | Returns the lowest value in each column
df.median() | Returns the median of each column
df.std() | Returns the standard deviation of each column